Welcome to week two of the Shallows Book Study. The prologue and chapters one to three were quite the thought provoking read. Please read through this guide and take mental or quick side notes so that then you can bring these ideas to our discussion for week 2.

Did you miss week 1?


“The Shallows” discusses Marshall McLuhan’s idea that “the medium is the message” and how the idea that technology can distract us from deeper effects and this sets the stage for the book’s exploration of this idea.

Did you do the cognitive experiment from last week?

Did you find that online reading is convenient but filled with distractions, which encourages skimming and fragmented reading. Where as physical books offer a focused, immersive experience, promoting sustained concentration, deeper engagement, and a stronger connection between reader and text?

“The medium is the message” means that how we communicate or the tools we use to share information have a big impact on what we say and how we act. It’s not just about the words or content; it’s about the way we deliver those words. Different communication tools, like books, TV, or the internet, change how we think and behave because they affect how we experience information. So, the way we say something can be just as important as what we’re saying.

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It is true whether we like it or not our minds are molded by external factors. Technology is changing how and what we think. Enthusiasts see technology as democratizing culture, while skeptics worry about its impact. External forces, from technology to culture, significantly impact our cognition and perception. This book invites reflection on how our minds are shaped by our technology. 

What are your thoughts on this?

Chapter 1: Hal And Me

This chapter reflects on Carr’s personal experience with the internet and he revealed a decline in his ability to focus on reading, a common issue among his friends as well. Carr’s life, divided into an “Analogue Youth” and “Digital Adulthood,” which reflects the internet’s impact on his life. His increasing reliance on computers and social media led him to investigate the internet’s profound effect on his concentration.

Carr’s theory on the internet diminishing attention spans resonates with frequent distractions online. I’ve observed my own focus wane due to the internet. Implications include reduced capacity for deep thinking and learning. It underscores the need for mindful online use and a balance between digital and offline activities to preserve cognitive abilities. The last line of this chapter hit hard “I missed my old brain.”

Discussion Board for Week 2:

  • What’s your take on Carr’s theory?
  • Does it align with your personal experiences?
  • Can you relate to the analogue youth/digital adulthood?

Chapter 2: The Vital Paths

Carr talks about experiments with sea slugs and monkeys and that give evidence that when we do things repeatedly, our brain changes. This connects to the chapter’s main idea that our brains aren’t fixed but can adjust to different things, including tools like the Internet and now Artificial Intelligence. It’s all about how our brain connections get stronger, and this supports Carr’s argument that tools can change how our brains work.


Carr’s exploration of the brain’s neuroplasticity and its profound implications for how we learn and perceive the world. Let’s focus on how tools like social media, web browsing, and generative AI are shaping our experiences and perceptions of learning.

Food for Thought:

  1. How has social media changed the way we learn and get information?
  2. Does having easy access to lots of information online change how we view learning? Does it help or hurt our ability to understand and remember what we learn?
  3. How do distractions like notifications, clickbait, and multitasking affect our ability to focus and learn effectively?
  4. Can technology which creates tailored content lead to filter bubbles and limit exposure to different perspectives? How does this affect our learning?
  5. What ethical concerns come with using technology in education and learning?

Chapter 3: The Tools of the Mind

In this chapter, Carr talks about how intellectual technologies, such as maps and clocks, have a profound impact on human cognition and thinking patterns. These tools extend our mental capabilities, reshape our understanding of space and time, and introduce new metaphors into our language, which fundamentally alters the way we think and perceive the world.

“We become what we behold. We shape our tools, and thereafter our tools shape us.” -Marshall McLuhan

Food for Thought:

Our newest informational tech that is going to impact our cognition and thinking patterns is Generative AI. 

  • How do you envision AI transforming human cognition in the years to come?
  • What thinking patterns might flourish, and which ones might face decline as a result?

Share your insights and predictions here.

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Week 3 will cover chapters 4-6